The bottom product is a set-top box, an electronic device which cable subscribers use to connect the cable signal to their television set.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables or, in the 2010s, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation.
A "cable channel" (sometimes known as a "cable network") is a television network available via cable television. When available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and BSkyB, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being mainly used in legal contexts. Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, MTV, Cartoon Network, E!, Eurosport and CNN International.
The abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes. The origins of cable for radio are even older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924.
History in the USA and Canada
Cable television has gone through a series of evolutions in the United States and Canada. From its founding, it primarily served small communities without access to a television station, or ones with an adverse location that prevented reception of outside signals even if they were not far away, such as being in a valley. Particularly in Canada, communities with their own signals were fertile cable markets, as viewers wanted to receive American signals. Early systems carried only a maximum of seven channels, using 2, 4, 5 or 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13, as the equipment was unable to confine the signal discreetly within the assigned channel bandwidth. As equipment improved, all twelve channels could be utilized, except where a local VHF television station broadcast. Local broadcast channels were not usable for signals deemed to be priority, but technology allowed low-priority signals to be placed on such channels by synchronizing their blanking intervals. Similarly, a local VHF station could not be carried on its broadcast channel as the signals would arrive at the TV set slightly separated in time, causing "ghosting"
The bandwidth of the amplifiers also was limited, meaning frequencies over 250 MHz were difficult to transmit to distant portions of the coaxial network, and UHF channels could not be used at all. To expand beyond 12 channels, non-standard "midband" channels had to be used, located between the FM band and Channel 7, or "superband" beyond Channel 13 up to about 300 MHz; these channels initially were only accessible using separate tuner boxes that sent the chosen channel into the TV set on Channel 2, 3 or 4. Later, the cable operators began to carry FM radio stations, and encouraged subscribers to connect their FM stereo sets to cable. Before multichannel television sound became common, Pay-TV channel sound was added to the FM cable line-ups. About this time, operators expanded beyond the 12-channel dial to use the "midband" and "superband" VHF channels adjacent to the "high band" 7-13 of North American television frequencies. Some operators as in Cornwall, Ontario, used a dual distribution network with Channels 2-13 on each of the two cables.
During the 1980s, United States regulations not unlike public, educational, and government access (PEG) created the beginning of cable-originated live television programming. This evolved into today's many cable-only broadcasts of diverse programming, including cable-only produced television movies and miniseries. Live local programs with local interests were rapidly created all over the United States in most major television markets in the early 1980s. Cable specialty channels, starting with channels oriented to show movies and large sporting or performance events, diversified further, and "narrowcasting" became common. By the late 1980s, cable-only signals outnumbered broadcast signals on cable systems. Some systems were going beyond 35 channels. By the mid-1980s in Canada, cable operators were allowed by the regulator to enter into distribution contracts with cable networks. Large cable companies used addressable descramblers to limit access to premium channels to paying customers.
By the 1990s, tiers became common, with customers able to subscribe to different tiers to obtain different selections of additional channels above the basic selection. By subscribing to additional tiers, customers could get specialty channels, movie channels, and foreign channels. During the 1990s, the pressure to accommodate the growing array of offerings resulted in digital transmission that made more efficient use of the VHF signal capacity; fibre optics was common to carry signals into areas near the home, where coax could carry higher frequencies over the short remaining distance. Although for a time in the 1980s and 1990s, television receivers and VCRs were equipped to receive the mid-band and super-band channels, such cable-ready tuners are rarely used now, requiring a return to the set-top boxes used from the 1970s onward. The conversion to digital broadcasting has put all signals - broadcast and cable - into digital form, rendering analog cable television service mostly obsolete, functional in select markets. Analog television sets are still accommodated, but their tuners are mostly obsolete; oftentimes, dependent entirely on the set-top box.
A cable television distribution box (left) in the basement of a building in Germany, with a splitter (right) which supplies the signal to separate cables which go to different rooms
To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one. The standard cable used in the U.S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, and connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring usually ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, and built-in cable wiring in the walls usually distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television; older analog cable, and newer digital cable which can carry data signals used by digital television receivers such as HDTV equipment. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s.How much maintenance is a pool? How far an object from a reference point? Where math came from? What are the three theory? When questions with pictures? What research method is a survey? How many opportunity syllables? Who questions with pictures? How far is santa's workshop from lake placid? Where careers grow? How far does 90 db travel? How much important you are to me quotes? Whose does this belong to? How far quiz questions? How many examples of faith in hebrews 11? What are the 7 categories classification? How much blogger earn per month? Which recruiter to contact? Where to plot independent and dependent variables? When marketing goes wrong? How far is the river summary? Diagram where kidneys are? How many means of egress required residential basement? Where to find engineering research kenshi? How many answers in a cup? Where to place industrial cooker ark? Who transfer vhs to dvd? What create wind? How get leaders far cry 6? Why classification of living things is important? When did workshop become a word? Where questions autism? Are workshops effective? Algorithmic trading? Which means to study or examine? Where was home improvement filmed? Why meaning in punjabi? Overcoming when you feel overwhelmed? Which influence found in mathura art? How many vacancies are there in upsc 2022? How meaning in malayalam? Whose body chapter summary? Whose gen z? How users are managed in linux? Where to research cars? What activities are near me? Where theory test centres? From where to read research papers? From where questions are asked in board exams? Where to put leadership on linkedin? When improvement exam held 2022 cbse? Which challenge character are you? How far away is opportunity? From where mean in urdu? What transfer case do i have by vin? How leadership works corwin? Who leads the nfl in interceptions? Why theory is important? Where to buy influence book? How much plant lights? How skills dbt pdf? How often does google update algorithm? When math matters? How much vacancy in upsc 2022? Which create and craft presenters are leaving? How much vacancy in indian army? How often meaning in telugu? Where is tokyo machine from? How many working days in a month? Where is the activities overview? Where skills meaning? How industries sulphur louisiana? Where's wally answers book 1? What career path should i take? Where to ask questions about covid? Where industrial engineering work? How many research hours for medical school? How opportunity cost is related to choice? Why grow milkweed? Which facility heist pays the most? What does from generation to generation mean? How many industrial engineers in the us? When internet is not working? Who whose and which? Who influence michael jackson? How much working hours in a year? How many improvement exam for class 11 kerala syllabus? Who industrial noise? How many favourites win at cheltenham 2022? How much intelligence demon's souls? How much plant food? How many classification of computer? When subject to synonym? How many days between challenges on the challenge? Where is the diaphragm located? Which grow in a small baby? What research is not? From where girl means? Who transfer capital delhi to agra? Who leadership and governance? Who influenced public enemy? Are there any activities? Who improved newcomen's steam engine? Who industry health? Where to open blogger account? Where to answer security questions for gmail? Which questions best demonstrate how to objectively? Activities when picnic? Why intelligence tests are flawed? Whose architect and builder is god? How many activities amcas reddit? How many machine strike players are there? What does held at facility mean? How many make the cut at the open? Which examples correctly use colons? When internet became popular? Why create an llc for rental properties? Where is copy from user? How many opportunity zone funds are there? Who improved the light bulb? Why developer console is not opening? Workshop where to start? What activities release endorphins? How much research for medical school? Which leaders killed the most? What improvement can be done in the company? Why industries are not in bihar? How much engineering colleges in india? How much transfer title? From where hair grow? How often examples sentences? How far questions with answers? What diagram means? Which questions are a sign of question wording bias? Where architects stay? Where to research companies? How improvement areas? How many architect artifacts are there? How much plant based protein? How many research universities in the us? Who's your internet service provider? How many important amino acids are there? How often questions survey? Where to get something manufactured? Where to meaning in marathi? How many subject in grade 8? Where i come from summary? Where to find theory test pass number? Whose or who's responsibility? How often is eco challenge? Where is developer option in realme? How many activities amcas reddit? Why questions about life? How many means in math? How often meaning in punjabi? Who interview nambi narayanan? Which means on i or o? How skills dbt worksheet? When to do overcoming isometrics? When is workshop closing? Who is the best interviewer? Bannerlord which workshop reddit? What machine burns belly fat? Vacancy where to watch? What grow zone is michigan? How much interview prep should i do? How influence works? How many recruiters per employee? How much marketing manager earn? Where to graph independent and dependent variables? Who's generation z? What object are you quiz? How often survey question examples? Can leadership be measured? What makes you examples? How many research tasks pokemon go? How many examples should be in a body paragraph? What activities are open near me? Where banjaras important for the economy? Which examples meet the definition of a government? Where engineering was invented? Where to recruit recruiters? Who overcome the odds? Whose genes determine intelligence? Where to learn leadership skills? Where's market harborough? Why skills are important? Whom questions examples? How intelligence happens? Why intelligence is not enough? Why career is so important in life? How many diagrams are here in uml? Where transfer title? Where to meaning in tamil? How often do rocket leaders change? Whose research was skinner s work based on? Who are industrial workers? Why examples are important? How overcoming laziness? Whom subject or object? How much leader on fly line? Why marketing interview answer? Who controls the algorithm? When your favorite coworker leaves? How industrial refrigeration systems work? Diagram where kidneys are located? How often does google algorithm change? How object is created in python? Examples how to introduce yourself? How far did opportunity travel? How many means in math? How long does classified information stay classified? Where to write math equations? Where banjaras important for the economy? Where architecture elements are applied? Where to create baby registry? Workshop where i work? How many vacancies? Whom archaic? How to diagram a process? How much leader for bass fishing? Where to transfer chase points? Who transfer district judge? What maintenance can a pilot perform? Why challenge students? Who activities in india? How long do workshops last? Was overcome or overcame? What industries are recession proof? How developer account? How often is summary judgement granted? When is workshop coming to console? Why summary report? Where architect work? Why interview internal candidates? Activities when wet season? How often are medicare summary notices mailed? Which important consideration of the delegator is applicable to? Is the opportunity still available? Why theory matters? How much is workshop garage? How math teachers think the world is? Why intelligence is important for success? When is credit facility? What machine is used for a bone scan? Does blogger still exist? How often an activity is done is called? Book summary for whom the bell tolls? How much activities at center parcs? How big should a workshop be? Who covax facility? How many skills in osrs? What favorite questions? How often is oppe required? When blogging goes bad? Which internet provider is best? How much should summary be? How much industries are there? How much make on onlyfans? When maintenance end in pes 2022? How blogger earn money? Industries who need workers? What does processed at facility mean? Who won challenge 36? Where to work at 16? Where is theory test pass number? Whose example meaning? Where to turn coins into cash?